What materials are used to make hydraulic hoses: a look at the most common rubbers

What materials are used to make hydraulic hoses: a look at the most common rubbers

What kinds of raw materials are used for hydraulic hose materials, this post will walk through 4 universal rubbers and their feature to help you figure out what our hydraulic hose is made from.

Rubber makes up the majority of hydraulic rubber hoses listed in standards like SAE and EN. On the market, there are a variety of rubbers to choose from. Each manufacturer has its own recipe for making hydraulic hose, but the end result is a similar product that meets the same requirements; they use the same rubber raw materials but have different formulas. Different roads appear to lead to the same location.

Natural rubber and synthetic rubber are the two most common types of rubber materials. SBR, NBR, CR, and CPE synthetic rubbers are used to make rubber hoses. In this article, we’ll go over the various rubbers and how each type of molecular structure affects performance.

Hydraulic Hose Materials

Rubber TypeCodePerformanceIdeal
application
Physical propertyAbrasion resistanceOil resistanceOperating temperature rangeWeather resistanceFlame retardant
Natural
Rubber
NR
ExcellentExcellentPoorPoor————Bulk/dry
material hose
Styrene-
Butadiene
Rubber
SBRGoodGoodPoor——————Utility
transfer hose
(air & water)
Nitrile
Rubber
NBRGood——Excellent——Poor——Fuel transfer
hose
NeopreneCRGood——Good——ExcellentExcellentHose cover

Nature Rubber(NR)

natural rubber
Natural Rubber

Natural rubber comes from the latex tree, which grows in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including Southeast Asia, Brazil, and other places.

The main component of natural rubber is rubber hydrocarbon, a linear polymer compound of cis-1,4-polyisoprene with a relative molecular weight of 30,000 to 30,000,000.

The natural rubber has the highest tensile strength, abrasion resistance, resilience, tear strength, and low hysteresis of any of the types compared.

Natural rubber, on the other hand, is prone to degradation and has low resistance to mineral and petroleum-based oils, making it unsuitable for use in petroleum-based fluid-transporting inner tubes. It also has a limited operating temperature range, ranging from -50°C to 70°C in most cases. As a result, it’s only suitable for light-duty applications.

Natural rubber is frequently used in the outer layer of hydraulic hose structures, though it is occasionally supplemented with other rubber materials to improve overall performance.

Butadiene and styrene Rubber (SBR)

SBR rubber
SBR Rubber

SBR is a high-molecular-weight elastomer copolymerized with the monomers butadiene and styrene. SBR is highly resistant to wear, oil, and aging, as well as has good compatibility with other rubbers. SBR can be used as a utility hose to transfer air and water.

Because SBR is not oil resistant, it cannot be used to transport fuel and petroleum-based fluids such as natural rubber because oil and hydrocarbon will cause it to swell and weaken.

SBR is commonly used in the manufacture of industrial rubber hoses for transporting non-corrosive substances like water and air. It’s frequently used in the outer structure of hydraulic hoses as an auxiliary rubber.

Nitrile Rubber (NBR)

NBR Rubber
NBR rubber

The monomers butadiene and acrylonitrile are copolymerized to form nitrile rubber, a polymer elastomer. Oil resistance, heat resistance, wear resistance, and solvent resistance is all excellent.

Oil resistance, heat resistance, and abrasion resistance improve as the amount of acrylonitrile in the rubber increases. It can be used in hot oil for a long time at 120°C. However, the elasticity of this rubber decreases over time, and it has a lower cold resistance than other general-purpose rubbers. The higher the concentration of acrylonitrile, the less resistant it is too cold.

Because of its excellent oil and heat resistance, NBR is frequently used in the inner layer of hydraulic hoses to transfer hydraulic fluids, making it compatible with most hydraulic oil media.

Neoprene is a type of rubber that is used to make a variety of products (CR)

Neoprene is a chlorine-based polymer elastomer with good aging, flame, oil, solvent, water, and air permeability but poor cold resistance.

Neoprene is frequently used as the main or auxiliary rubber in the external structure of hydraulic hoses.

Chlorinated polyethylene rubber (CPE)

Because the chlorine atoms on the side chain provide the majority of the elasticity in chlorinated polyethylene rubber, the chlorine content has a significant impact on its performance. The elasticity gradually increases to become rubber as the chlorine content increases; as the chlorine content decreases, the elasticity gradually decreases to become plastic. The rubber should have a chlorine content of 25-35.

Weather resistance, ozone resistance, heat resistance, chemical resistance, and slightly better oil resistance are all advantages of chlorinated polyethylene rubber. It’s simple to mix with a variety of polymer materials, and it can be mixed with Nitrile rubber to improve weather and ozone resistance without significantly reducing Nitrile rubber’s oil resistance.

In the outer layer of hydraulic tubes, chlorinated polypropylene is frequently used.

Conclusion:

Finally, it should be noted that the formula plays an important role in the performance of rubber hoses, especially those with more than a dozen raw materials in the rubber formula, such as natural or synthetic rubber, carbon black, fillers, reinforcing agents, softeners, plasticizers, vulcanizing agents, and so on. The selection of the right combination is the key to the formation of an excellent formula, which requires extensive testing by technical personnel. We use the advantages of different materials in formula design, and choose the appropriate auxiliary components to compensate for their shortcomings, as well as extensive testing of the finished product to ensure that its indicators meet the requirements of specific standards or customer needs, which is a time-consuming task, but only then can we produce the expected products, which is also our responsibility and value.

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